Frequently Asked Questions



What is Titanium Sponge?

Titanium Sponge is the product gained through the application of the Kroll process on raw titanium ore. Depending on the application of this process, differing purities of titanium sponge can be obtained. The resulting impurities in the sponge usually include iron, chloride, magnesium, silicon, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

How is Titanium Sponge processed?

Titanium sponge is created by applying what is known as the "Kroll process" to Rutile mineral, where the mineral is treated with a chloride compound.

Titanium Sponge - Kroll Process


What is Titanium Sponge used for?

Titanium sponge is the product in it's purest form and is used as the base of for titanium alloys, billets, ingots, etc.

What are the benefits of Titanium Sponge?

- Resistance to corrosion
- Fire and shock resistant
- Light-weight
- Low cost of maintenance
- Biocompatible
- Recyclable

What is an alloy / master alloy?

An alloy is a material composed of multiple elements having different properties than those of its component elements.  The purpose of alloying one element with other elements(s) is to enhance the properties of the compound which may include density, reactivity, conductivity, tensile strength, shear strength, etc.

A master alloy is an alloy that is used as an additive to another material. For instance, titanium alloys combine titanium sponge and a master alloy to form an ingot which is in turn converted into general mill products such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, tube, etc.

What is Vanadium?

Vanadium is a soft and ductile, silver-grey metal, that has good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. Vanadium has good structural strength and a low fission neutron cross section, making it useful in nuclear applications.

What are the applications of Vanadium?

Of all the vanadium produced worldwide, nearly 80% is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive.

Other uses include:
- in alloys to make stainless steel for use in surgical instruments and tools
- in aluminum in titanium alloys used in making jet engines
- in axles, crankshafts, gears, and other critical components
- as a carbide stabilizer in making steel
- nuclear applications


What are structural steels?

Structural steel is steel construction material, formed with specific standards of chemical composition and strength. Structural steels are characterised by their yield strength, tensile strength and elongation in relation to their density, plate thickness and structural shape.